Lebanon is a liberal decmocracy with a constitution that was initially set-up in 1926 and ammended multiple times thereafter. Lebanon actually achieved independence in 1943 and over the years has developed a unique political system that accounts for over 18 religious sects in the country.
The Political system is headed by a President who under the constitution needs to be Christian Maronite, a Prime Minister who needs to be Sunni Muslim and a Parliament Speaker who needs to be Shia Muslim. Furthermore, the parliament MP's is evenly split between Christians and Muslims. No where else in the world do you see this religious harmony in a political system.
Some important statistics on Lebanon include the following:-
Population: 4.1m (World Bank Source)
Area: 10,452 sqm KM
Principal Cities: Beirut, Tripoli and Saida
President: General Michel Sleiman
Official Language: Arabic, but French and English are widely popular
Religion: 30% Christian and 70% Muslim
GDP Per Capita (PPP): $11,100 (2008 est)
Borders: Palestine 79km and Syria 375km